Arrays

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Arrays

  • Collection of similar types of data is called an "Array".
  • Array is linear data structure of similar type of value under a same name.
  • Data are stored in sequence in data structure.

Array Syntax

data_type arr_name[sizeof_arr]

Example

int ages[5] = [15,17,14,18,19]

This example basically means

ages[0] = 15;
ages[1] = 17;
ages[2] = 14;
ages[3] = 18;
ages[4] = 19;

An array basically creates multiple variables with different index with which data can be accessed.

in arrays index starts from 0 to n number. the last index will be sizeof_arr - 1 which means we have ages[5] where size of arr is 5 so first index will ages[0] and last index will be sizeof_arr - 1 means it'll be 5 - 1 so last index will be ages[4]

Values in arrays can be accessed using array index. SO if we wanna access value on ages[4] we will access it ages[4] which will be 19

preview Diagram from byju's

Notes: elements in array must have same datatype.

int a = [1,4,7,3,6] // This is correct ✅
char b = ['d','a','s','g','h'] // This is also correct ✅
float c = [32,6.3,'d','a',42,'b'] // This is not allowed ❌

I hope this clears up what arrays means.

Properties(Characteristics) of Array

  • Array has number of memory cell which are called elements. each memory cell size occupy by which is depending on type of Array
  • The array elements are always stored sequentially or linear form.
  • Every elements has assigned a unique number which is called "Address of particular element"

Types of array

There are three main types of array.

  1. One Dimensional Array [1D Array]
  2. Two Dimensional Array [2D Array]
  3. Multi-Dimensional Array

One Dimensional Array [1D Array]

Syntax

data_type arr_name[size];

Example

int ages[4] = [12,54,83,35]
char vowels[5] = ['A','E','I','O','U']

Two Dimensional Array [2D Array]

Syntax

data_type arr_name[row][column];

Example

int two_dimensional_arr[4][3];

Initialization

int arr[4][3]={{1,2,3},{2,3,4},{3,4,5},{4,5,6}};

Array Practical Example

Example to find Row Major Order and Column Major Order in C.

#include <stdio.h>
int Max = 10;

int main(){

  int arr[Max][Max], m, n, i, j;
  printf("\n Enter total number of row: ");
  scanf("%d", &m);
  printf("\n Enter total number of column: ");
  scanf("%d", &n);

  for(i=0;i<m;i++){
    for(j=0;j<n;j++){
      printf("\n Enter any number for array elements: ");
      scanf("%d", &arr[i][j]);
    }
  }

  printf("\n\nRow-Major Order:\n\n");

  for(i=0; i<m; i++){
    for(j=0; j<n; j++){
      printf("%d\t", arr[i][j]);
    }
    printf("\n");
  }

  printf("\n\nColumn-Major Order:\n\n");
  for(i=0; i<m; i++){
    for(j=0; j<n; j++){
      printf("%d\t", arr[j][i]);
    }
    printf("\n");
  }
}

Output

output

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